Pay attention to financial and human resources

Not enough attention to budget and staffing implications of reforms

Limited capacity of implementation in the regions and rural areas

Continuous reliance on donors' interventions

Risk of less efficient implementation in the regions


Pay attention to policy implementation instead of policy development

Continuing focus at the policy-making level

Implementation modalities are not always clear yet

Not enough attention paid to the needs of service providers and end users on the ground

No special focus on the implementation in the regions and rural areas


Pay attention to feasibility and sustainability issues of implementation

Ambitious nature of reforms

High number of priorities set for implementation

Complex design of the VET system that requires a high level of professionalism

The need for continuous support to service providers and end users for efficient functioning


Raise the status of teachers and buy in their support for reforms

The job status of teachers would be improved first before implementing the new law.

Improved salaries and working conditions would become a reality, so that more talented young people enter the teaching profession.

Merit-based hiring and firing criteria would be developed and implemented for VET teachers.


Diversify opportunities for VET students' first work experience

Measures would be taken to counteract the limits of a weak and fragmented private sector.

Different alternatives of first work experience would be explored systematically (e.g. internships, traineeships, volunteerism, job shadowing, summer jobs, social entrepreneurship).


Cooperate with the private sector on new terms as equal partners

Clear incentives would be provided for the private sector to be involved in VET in different ways.

Small and micro companies would be supported in providing collective training offerings in clusters.

A new approach of co-management and power sharing would be implemented in VET governance.