This event is one in a series of 6 country events, in the context of a study on migration and its...


Institutionalise a function for shared monitoring and evaluation

Building and institutionalising a shared monitoring and evaluation function, and related framework, will enable assessment of policy progress but could also help engage the stakeholders.


Explore other financing schemes to support the main policy priorities

Based on the experiences developed with the funds for in-demand occupations, for talented students or with the subsidies for dual education, it would be interesting to explore what other schemes could be set up to similarly support the main policy priorities, for example in favour of vulnerable populations or lagging-behind regions, in order to bridge the human capital gaps. This exploration should take into account the need to keep mechanisms as simple as possible in administrative and legal terms, both for targeted users to apply and for the public actors to manage them.


Discuss ways and steps to diversify the sources of funds and increase the share of non-state resources, based on existing opportunities

To ensure financial sustainability, there is an urgent need to diversify the sources of funds and increase the share of non-state resources. Various means may help doing so: introduce further fiscal facilities or communicate about existing incentives given to enterprises involved in the dual system, and allow, encourage or even train (if needed) training providers to apply for foreign donors' financial support for equipment, technology or technical assistance.


Carry out a spending review

For financing aspects specifically, and as recommended by the World Bank in its Growth and Jobs report (2018), a spending review could help 'verify whether efficiency of spending is appropriate given the limited ability of the sector to provide the right skills', and establish the baseline situation and scope of needs. Improving financial capacity would require assessment of investment needs to upgrade the infrastructure and the equipment in schools. The assessment should be based on the needs expressed by the schools, aggregated by categories of investment; establish the corresponding priorities by categories, municipalities, and training providers; and make an investment plan over a longer period.


Set up an institutional database to be regularly updated and maintained

Regarding human and institutional memory issues, including staff turnover, corporate measures could help to establish an institutional memory. These measures may include setting up an institutional database to be regularly updated and maintained, formalised handover procedures, and/or overlapping engagement of the current and new staff.


Carry out a sound diagnostic assessment of capacity

In order to accurately define remediation measures to the capacity issues, whether human, material, or financial, a sound diagnostic assessment of the capacity state of play would be needed as the very first step. It could easily build on existing methodological tools, including the SABER methodology from the World Bank (Systems Approach for Better Education Results), the SIGMA methodology from the OECD and EU, or other organisation audit methods.


Review current and if needed introduce new accountability mechanisms for VET colleges, in view of increasing their autonomy and decentralised governance

Regarding VET colleges' autonomy and decentralised governance, a greater degree of decentralisation could provide more autonomy (both in terms of management and financing) to the VET schools to enable them to adapt and better respond to the skills needs of the local labour market. This should go hand in hand with revised accountability rules, based on clear, agreed objectives. The youth advisory bodies that are foreseen in the new Law on Youth could also be interesting intermediary bodies for inclusive approach of policymaking including young people.


Review obstacles to social partners' involvement in the policy implementation, and entrust them with specific responsibilities in the next strategy in the policy cycle

Further develop the framework for shared governance of VET, with particular attention to the roles and responsibilities of social partners in policymaking and implementation.