Reforms in vocational education and training in ETF partner countries: A cross-country digest of reform implementation and risks

This cross-country digest describes common approaches to the implementation of new policies for vocational education and training in the ETF’s partner countries in the regions of the Western Balkans and Turkey, the Eastern Partnership and Russia, the Southern and Eastern Mediterranean, and Central Asia. Based on findings from the Torino Process – a biennial review of progress in vocational education and training – the paper evaluates the advantages and disadvantages of different approaches to reform implementation in partner countries from the point of view of common risks to reform success. The paper points out commonalities between countries and discusses findings that could support a better, more effective transition from planning to policy action.