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Key takeaways

The 2023 Torino Process system report for Ukraine provides an insight into the performance of the vocational education and training (VET) system. Ukraine has made great strides in prioritising VET through resource allocation, policy and legislation frameworks, and its comprehensive reforms focusing on human capital development underscore its commitment to modernising VET programme content and strengthening institutional capacities.

An area of notable strength of Ukraine's VET system is its pursuit of excellence in designing and implementing VET programmes. Ukraine is also committed to pioneering new solutions in support of promoting access to VET and increasing the chances of successful graduation of its VET students. The introduction of creative learning environments and innovative teaching technologies could do much to bolster the appeal of VET as an attractive educational choice.

In spite of this positive progress, there are areas of ongoing challenge. Employability of VET graduates remains modest indicating a certain level of disconnect between VET learning outcomes and the needs of the labour market. A systemic weakness in pedagogy and teacher professional development could be contributing factors to this. However, efforts to increase the availability of work-based learning and the involvement of employers in VET management and governance could help to smooth the transition from learning to employment.

Acknowledgement must be given to the disruptions suffered by the VET system due to the Russian invasion, and its impact on infrastructure, VET programme delivery and resource allocation cannot be understated. Nevertheless, VET providers and professionals have shown great resilience and the focus on improvement will do much to support the development of a workforce equipped with the skills needed for the post-war reconstruction.

Access to learning

Access and participation to learning is the area of monitoring that helps countries capture the extent to which initial VET, continuing VET and other learning opportunities are accessible and attractive for learners, irrespective of who they are and why they wish to participate in learning. It also indicates the success with which learners progress through, and graduate from, the VET system.

Access and attractiveness of initial vet needs to be improved to boost participation

The Torino Process monitoring results for Ukraine indicate that the attractiveness of initial VET programmes is something of a challenge, whereas access and attractiveness to continuing VET programmes and other learning opportunities for adults is an area of VET system strength.


A favourable legal framework and an increase in employer training programmes and short-term, skills-focused courses could be contributing factors for this positive performance.

One area of difficulty in the system is the lack of flexibility for students to switch between VET and other learning pathways, including general education. This means successfully transitioning to the next level of education or work might often be difficult.


The Russian war against Ukraine has had devastating consequences for Ukrainian VET, in particular the destruction of infrastructure, resources and a greatly reduced VET workforce.


Yet the system has shown remarkable resilience in its objective to keep everyone learning. Policies and legislation have been implemented to improve internet access, accelerate the digital transformation of VET and offer access to free VET programmes.

Ukraine recognises the importance of enhancing the accessibility and attractiveness of its VET programmes and the introduction of new measures to boost participation in initial VET can be expected to have a positive impact in the near future. Specific measures introduced in response to the war should also start to gain traction and contribute to the skills development needed for the rebuilding of Ukraine

Quality of learning

Quality and relevance of learning is the area of monitoring that identifies the extent to which the VET system succeeds in providing basic skills and key competences to young and adult learners. It highlights the relevance of VET programmes to the world of work and the success with which VET graduates enter the labour market. Also monitored is the extent to which excellence is pursued in relation to programme content, delivery and social inclusion, as well as systemic innovation which helps the VET system to respond to the evolving needs of learners and labour markets.

Excellence and innovation feature strongly in VET programme content

Ukraine’s VET system performs well in promoting excellence in programme content and implementation and the system appears responsive to incorporating future-focused themes into the curricula, such as the green and digital transition. However, the system lags in promoting excellence in teaching methodology and the professional development of teachers, only a fifth of whom participate in regular professional training

professional training

In terms of innovation, Ukraine demonstrates an exceptional commitment to pioneering new solutions aimed at bolstering the participation and graduation rates of its VET students. Actions undertaken include the creation of innovative learning environments and the introduction of innovative teaching technologies.


While this is an important achievement for enhancing VET performance in support of labour market needs, the full benefits are yet to be seen throughout the system.

The VET system demonstrates the capacity to provide young learners with basic skills and key competences but when contrasted with adult learners, the quality and relevance of learning outcomes for youth are much lower. This could be a contributing factor to the modest rate of employability of young VET graduates in Ukraine indicating a disconnect between the learning outcomes of training programmes and the labour market requirements.

young learners

Although Ukraine has devised policies for on-the-job training, stronger interaction with employers is required to ensure a smooth and efficient transition from learning to employment for both young and adult learners. Innovations, such as those mentioned above, can also be expected to make a positive impact in the near future.

Ukraine's VET system demonstrates a commitment to excellence and innovation for better programme quality and relevance, although the benefits of this innovation are yet to reach all VET learners across the system. Strengthening the relevance of VET programme learning outcomes to the labour market, as well as the availability of work-based learning opportunities, could deliver an increase in the employability of VET graduates in the country.

System organisation

System organisation is the area of monitoring that captures performance in various domains of systems management and administration. It looks into whether practitioners and leaders can access data and evidence to support informed decision-making, the level of stakeholder involvement in the governance of VET, the quality and capacity of staff in leadership positions, and the degree of internationalisation Additionally, monitoring the human and financial resources allocated to the VET system helps assess if these resources support effective teaching, training, and learning.

Employers need to play a greater role in shaping the VET system

Governance of the VET system in Ukraine enjoys a certain level of external stakeholder consultation and participation, although the involvement of employers in steering and managing the VET system is still a challenge.


While the financial and human resources allocated to VET appear adequate, issues with the quality of management, teachers, teaching materials and infrastructure investment present bigger challenges than the sheer amount of resources allocated.

While Ukraine has already made significant progress in reforming its VET system, the Russian invasion of the country and its recently awarded EU candidate status have given new impetus to the implementation of improvements and reforms. Key developments include allying education programmes with regional labour markets, digitalising VET through distance learning platforms and promoting VET through career counselling.

markets, digitalising

Efforts to improve the comparability of the Ukrainian National Qualification Framework with the European Qualification Framework reveal the objectives are now very closely aligned. Enhanced comparability and recognition of qualifications is vital to support the 8 million Ukrainians now living in EU member states as a consequence of the war.

Additionally, planned funding of a new network of Centres of Vocational Excellence will pioneer the creation of high-tech and inclusive VET institutions. These are designed to extend the educational offer and support cooperation and interaction between diverse stakeholders including business, government, educational institutions and citizens.

start up

Although the Ukraine VET system continues to struggle with the availability of reliable and comparable data for planning, policy analysis, and decision-making purposes, the development of policies and legislation that prioritise the improvement of VET is an important achievement. The VET system is effective at communicating its performance and results, which means the public and stakeholders are generally well informed of what and how the system can deliver for learners. How financial and other material resources can be allocated in order to translate into a more satisfactory and adequately resourced environment continues to be an ongoing challenge.

Promoting access and participation in opportunities for lifelong learning

Supporting quality and relevance of lifelong learning

Index of system performance

System performance

International comparability of performance results

Evidence for this monitoring was collected and analysed from September 2022 until April 2023. In addition to the internationally comparable indicators covered by the Torino Process monitoring framework, a supplementary questionnaire for national authorities and stakeholders in Ukraine was used to gather additional information.

In addition to messages about system performance and war impact and war-related remedies, the monitoring delivers information about the international comparability of results of each country, the extent to which these results might be susceptible to bias, and how self-critical a country is when it reports about its policy and system performance for external monitoring purposes.

The evidence suggests that the monitoring results of Ukraine are more internationally comparable than those of other countries, on average, but they are also more susceptible to bias in international

comparison. Ukraine, however, tends to be somewhat more self-critical about the performance of its VET system than other countries participating in the Torino Process monitoring.