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Key takeaways

The 2023 Torino Process system report for Albania reveals the strengths of the country’s vocational education and training (VET) system as well as the ongoing challenges.  Although the VET system can be perceived as a less popular educational pathway, young learners are nonetheless attracted to and participate very successfully in the system’s initial VET programmes.  Up until now, continuing VET programmes have struggled to capture the attention of adult learners but a range of initiatives should start to see an increase in participation in VET and other lifelong learning opportunities.

An area in which Albania’s VET system is performing well is its commitment to increasing the quality and relevance of VET learning outcomes.  System-level innovations to enhance the responsiveness of VET programmes to the needs of the labour market can be expected to positively impact the employability of VET graduates in the near future.  Likewise, the pursuit of excellence in pedagogy and teacher professional development should enhance the delivery of updated and relevant skills and competences.  The inclusion of themes such as the green and digital transition further underscores the commitment to ensuring Albania’s VET system is ready for the challenges of the future.

While Albania dedicates a substantial level of human and financial/material resources to VET, challenges do still remain.  The quality of training and learning materials continues to be lower than needed and inconsistencies across the VET provider network mean that not all providers have the capacity to make the best use of the resources that are available.  Actions to address gaps in data monitoring and collection will not only enhance the level of system analysis but will also support more informed decision-making to target these resourcing issues. 

Access to learning

Access and participation to learning is the area of monitoring that helps countries capture the extent to which initial VET, continuing VET and other learning opportunities are accessible and attractive for learners, irrespective of who they are and why they wish to participate in learning. It also indicates the success with which learners progress through, and graduate from, the VET system.

Opportunities for lifelong learning: access and participation

The Torino Process monitoring results of VET in Albania indicate that the system performs well in relation to access and attractiveness to initial VET programmes. However, limited participation in continuing VET and other lifelong learning opportunities suggests programmes aimed at adult learners lack appeal.


To tackle this obstacle, reformed active labour market measures have been implemented and their positive effects are anticipated in the coming future. 

While overall the VET system is a less attractive option for prospective learners compared to other educational pathways, learners who do enroll can expect to progress well with a low risk of failure or dropout.

Students works

The system demonstrates a certain degree of flexibility for learners who wish to switch between VET and general education in order to continue their educational careers.

The strong performance of Albania’s initial VET system in appealing to younger learners is probably a consequence of its active VET policies and suitable legal framework to remove obstacles to access.  Although access to continuing VET programmes remains a challenge, Albania’s attention to reforming and diversifying its adult learning opportunities should start to have positive outcomes in the near future.

Quality of learning

Quality and relevance of learning is the area of monitoring that identifies the extent to which the VET system succeeds in providing basic skills and key competences to young and adult learners.  It highlights the relevance of VET programmes to the world of work and the success with which VET graduates enter the labour market.  Also monitored is the extent to which excellence is pursued in relation to programme content, delivery and social inclusion, as well as systemic innovation which helps the VET system to respond to the evolving needs of learners and labour markets.

Lifelong learning outcomes: quality and relevance, excellence and innovation

While the VET system in Albania performs strongly in supporting learners to progress well and graduate successfully, the labour market prospects for youth and adults remain relatively low. There are a number of possible contributing factors to this. 

Students happy

Firstly, the quality and relevance of learning outcomes of youth are considerably lower than those of adult learners which could be limiting their success in the labour market.

Students work

Additionally, VET programmes are not overly responsive to the demands of the labour market which could result in a mismatch between the skills and competences of VET graduates and the requirements of employers.

Albania is aware of the challenges facing the VET system and demonstrates a decisive commitment to promoting excellence across the VET system, particularly in relation to pedagogy and the professional development of teachers and trainers. 


Systemic innovation is also a VET system priority with initiatives aimed at improving access to lifelong learning and strengthening the quality and relevance of learning outcomes.  It is encouraging to see such targeted actions which should help to better align the performance of VET in support of labour market needs.

While Albania's VET system performs well in guiding learners toward successful graduation, challenges persist in the form of relatively low labour market prospects for both youth and adults. The focus on systemic innovation, particularly in enhancing access to lifelong learning and improving the quality and relevance of learning outcomes, should yield significant improvements and help align the VET system more effectively with the evolving needs of the labour market.  Initiatives being put in place can be expected to have a positive impact in the near future.

System organisation

System organisation is the area of monitoring that captures performance in various domains of systems management and administration. It looks into whether practitioners and leaders can access data and evidence to support informed decision-making, the level of stakeholder involvement in the governance of VET,  the quality and capacity of staff in leadership positions, and the degree of internationalisation  Additionally, monitoring the human and financial resources allocated to the VET system helps assess if these resources support effective teaching, training, and learning.

System organisation: management and resourcing

Albania performs very well in terms of VET system organisation and monitoring, and the strong results are a clear consequence of the efforts put in place for the successful and efficient management of the system.  The high priority attached to VET in terms of human and financial/material resource allocations means that there are no acute shortages of either staff or means across the system.

management and resourcing

However, the quality of materials for training and learning is often a challenge and the network of VET providers may not always be able to make the best use of these resources. 

quality of materials

Albania does struggle with the lack of reliable and comparative data which may prevent the reliable tracking of progress and therefore informed decision-making.

While the system demonstrates a positive degree of internationalisation, challenges surrounding the analysis, documentation and dissemination of best practices could be an impediment to more extensive peer learning opportunities and exchanges.

learning opportunities

Albania excels in managing its VET system.  The prioritisation of VET, reflected in substantial human and financial/material resources, ensures an absence of acute shortages in staffing or materials. However, challenges arise in the quality of training materials and an inconsistent capacity of the VET provider network to effectively use available resources. A commitment to systemic innovation including professional teacher training should help tackle these issues in the future.  In addition, addressing gaps in data analysis and dissemination will not only support more informed decision-making nationally but will also promote broader international peer learning practices and exchanges.

Promoting access and participation in opportunities for lifelong learning

Supporting quality and relevance of lifelong learning

Index of system performance

System performance

Torino process system monitoring report