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Since independence in 1991, Turkmenistan has pursued a series of economic reforms aimed at the creation of a market economy. The medium-income country is rich in oil and gas reserves, and GDP is strong.
A socio-economic development plan, (2011–2030) aims to create a high standard of living, in a country where citizens receive free gas, water and electric power, and the prices of key products and services are regulated.
A raft of economic, social and cultural reforms are under way aiming to: diversify the economy; develop transport, energy and communication infrastructure; attract foreign investment; support business, SMEs and entrepreneurial development; improve banking and financial systems; and implement social and education reforms.
Approx. 73% of government spending goes to social and public services, with 40% directed to education. Following 12-year general secondary education, school leavers either continue education or enter the workforce. The government is also prioritising the issue of skills for employability.


VET is the EU’s key priority in providing support for Turkmenistan. In 2015, ETF assisted the European Commission in the implementation of the EU-funded project ‘Support to the Education Sector’ €6 million.
Turkmenistan has not participated in the Torino Process cycle, however, it has followed the project internationally and regionally in order to promote its commitment to international cooperation. An updated ETF country report from 2015 is available online in English and Russian.

ETF’s Role

• Build capacity in the network of VET stakeholders and school directors involved in the first EU VET project, ending 2013.
• Provide a platform for comparing progress in the implementation of the new curricula introduced in 2013
• Capacity development modules for school managers developed under the ETF school development project in Central Asia
• Support to the EU Delegations, building capacities of policymakers and other stakeholders in terms of VET policy analysis and monitoring. And assist with the identification and formulation of the project ‘Support to VET’ €15 million
• Provide support for Qualification Frameworks stocktaking, reporting and studies
• Leading national and peer learning seminars in quality assurance

For more info, contact the ETF Country Desk: Ian Cumming, +39 011 630 2572, e-mail:

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