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Kazakhstan is an upper middle-income country, with impressive levels of recent economic growth. It has a young population with youths up to 15 years representing more than a quarter of the total. Youth unemployment is lower than overall unemployment, which is a truly exceptional situation.

Public expenditure on education, approx. 3%, remains below the OECD average. The share of VET in secondary education, approx. 7%, shows VET is not a preferred option. Despite this, VET is seen as an important driver for economic development, and evidence-based policies and strategies are well integrated. The programme for accelerated development in industrial innovation, for example, aims at diversifying the economy and enhancing competitiveness, as well as focusing on the creation of a well-qualified workforce.

A national qualification framework has been adopted, while occupational standards are being developed alongside employers. The role of employers in VET is increasing, with the Chamber of Entrepreneurs supporting the involvement of SMEs. Kazakhstan is looking to implement a dual system of vocational education and widening VET provision to offer it free of charge.




• Increase VET quality and attractiveness
• Strengthen cooperation between education and business (work-based learning)
• High-quality continuous professional development VET teachers and trainers


ETF’s Role

• Policy analysis and monitoring
• VET provision and quality (regional)
• Enhancing demand-driven policy implementation for CPD
• Regional work-based learning project of Skills Connexion

For more info, contact the ETF Country Desk: Christine Hemschemeier, +39 011 630 2272, e-mail:


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